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LISTING 26.1 L26-1.ASM

; Program to illustrate operation of write mode 3 of the VGA.
;  Draws 8×8 characters at arbitrary locations without disturbing
;  the background, using VGA’s 8×8 ROM font.  Designed
;  for use with modes 0Dh, 0Eh, 0Fh, 10h, and 12h.
; Runs only on VGAs (in Models 50 & up and IBM Display Adapter
;  and 100% compatibles).
; Assembled with MASM
; By Michael Abrash
;
stack   segment para stack ‘STACK’
        db      512 dup(?)
stack   ends
;
VGA_VIDEO_SEGMENT       equ     0a000h  ;VGA display memory segment
SCREEN_WIDTH_IN_BYTES   equ     044ah   ;offset of BIOS variable
FONT_CHARACTER_SIZE     equ     8       ;# bytes in each font char
;
; VGA register equates.
;
SC_INDEX        equ     3c4h    ;SC index register
SC_MAP_MASK     equ     2       ;SC map mask register index
GC_INDEX        equ     3ceh    ;GC index register
GC_SET_RESET    equ     0       ;GC set/reset register index
GC_ENABLE_SET_RESET equ 1       ;GC enable set/reset register index
GC_ROTATE       equ     3       ;GC data rotate/logical function
                                ; register index
GC_MODE         equ     5       ;GC Mode register
GC_BIT_MASK     equ     8       ;GC bit mask register index
;
dseg    segment para common ‘DATA’
TEST_TEXT_ROW   equ     69      ;row to display test text at
TEST_TEXT_COL   equ     17      ;column to display test text at
TEST_TEXT_WIDTH equ     8       ;width of a character in pixels
TestString      label   byte
        db      ‘Hello, world!’,0       ;test string to print.
FontPointer     dd      ?               ;font offset
dseg    ends
;
cseg    segment para public ‘CODE’
        assume  cs:cseg, ds:dseg
start   proc    near
        mov     ax,dseg
        mov     ds,ax
;
; Select 640×480 graphics mode.
;
        mov     ax,012h
        int     10h
;
; Set the screen to all blue, using the readability of VGA registers
; to preserve reserved bits.
;
        mov     dx,GC_INDEX
        mov     al,GC_SET_RESET
        out     dx,al
        inc     dx
        in      al,dx
        and     al,0f0h
        or      al,1                ;blue plane only set, others reset
        out     dx,al
        dec     dx
        mov     al,GC_ENABLE_SET_RESET
        out     dx,al
        inc     dx
        in      al,dx
        and     al,0f0h
        or      al,0fh              ;enable set/reset for all planes
        out     dx,al
        mov     dx,VGA_VIDEO_SEGMENT
        mov     es,dx               ;point to display memory
        mov     di,0
        mov     cx,8000h            ;fill all 32k words
        mov     ax,0ffffh           ;because of set/reset, the value
                                    ; written actually doesn’t matter
        rep stosw                   ;fill with blue
;
; Set driver to use the 8×8 font.
;
        mov     ah,11h          ;VGA BIOS character generator function,
        mov     al,30h          ; return info subfunction
        mov     bh,3            ;get 8×8 font pointer
        int     10h
        call    SelectFont
;
; Print the test string, cycling through colors.
;
        mov     si,offset TestString
        mov     bx,TEST_TEXT_ROW
        mov     cx,TEST_TEXT_COL
        mov     ah,0                ;start with color 0
StringOutLoop:
        lodsb
        and     al,al
        jz      StringOutDone
        push    ax                  ;preserve color
        call    DrawChar
        pop     ax                  ;restore color
        inc     ah                  ;next color
        and     ah,0fh              ;colors range from 0 to 15
        add     cx,TEST_TEXT_WIDTH
        jmp     StringOutLoop
StringOutDone:
;
; Wait for a key, then set to text mode & end.
;
        mov     ah,1
        int     21h             ;wait for a key
        mov     ax,3
        int     10h             ;restore text mode
;
; Exit to DOS.
;
        mov     ah,4ch
        int     21h
Start   endp
;
; Subroutine to draw a text character in a linear graphics mode
;  (0Dh, 0Eh, 0Fh, 010h, 012h). Background around the pixels that
;  make up the character is preserved.
; Font used should be pointed to by FontPointer.
;
; Input:
;  AL = character to draw
;  AH = color to draw character in (0-15)
;  BX = row to draw text character at
;  CX = column to draw text character at
;
;  Forces ALU function to “move”.
;  Forces write mode 3.
;
DrawChar        proc    near
        push    ax
        push    bx
        push    cx
        push    dx
        push    si
        push    di
        push    bp
        push    ds
        push    ax      ;preserve character to draw in AL
;
; Set up set/reset to produce character color, using the readability
; of VGA register to preserve the setting of reserved bits 7-4.
;
        mov     dx,GC_INDEX
        mov     al,GC_SET_RESET
        out     dx,al
        inc     dx
        in      al,dx
        and     al,0f0h
        and     ah,0fh
        or      al,ah
        out     dx,al
;
; Select write mode 3, using the readability of VGA registers
; to leave bits other than the write mode bits unchanged.
;
        mov     dx,GC_INDEX
        mov     al,GC_MODE
        out     dx,al
        inc     dx
        in      al,dx
        or      al,3
        out     dx,al
;
; Set DS:SI to point to font and ES to point to display memory.
;
        lds     si,[FontPointer]        ;point to font
        mov     dx,VGA_VIDEO_SEGMENT
        mov     es,dx                   ;point to display memory
;
; Calculate screen address of byte character starts in.
;
        pop     ax              ;get back character to draw in AL

        push    ds              ;point to BIOS data segment
        sub     dx,dx
        mov     ds,dx
        xchg    ax,bx
        mov     di,ds:[SCREEN_WIDTH_IN_BYTES]   ;retrieve BIOS
                                                ; screen width
        pop     ds
        mul     di              ;calculate offset of start of row
        push    di              ;set aside screen width
        mov     di,cx           ;set aside the column
        and     cl,0111b        ;keep only the column in-byte address
        shr     di,1
        shr     di,1
        shr     di,1            ;divide column by 8 to make a byte address
        add     di,ax           ;and point to byte
;
; Calculate font address of character.
;
        sub     bh,bh
        shl     bx,1            ;assumes 8 bytes per character; use
        shl     bx,1            ; a multiply otherwise
        shl     bx,1            ;offset in font of character
        add     si,bx           ;offset in font segment of character
;
; Set up the GC rotation. In write mode 3, this is the rotation
; of CPU data before it is ANDed with the Bit Mask register to
; form the bit mask. Force the ALU function to “move”. Uses the
; readability of VGA registers to leave reserved bits unchanged.
;
        mov     dx,GC_INDEX
        mov     al,GC_ROTATE
        out     dx,al
        inc     dx
        in      al,dx
        and     al,0e0h
        or      al,cl
        out     dx,al
;
; Set up BH as bit mask for left half, BL as rotation for right half.
;
        mov     bx,0ffffh
        shr     bh,cl
        neg     cl
        add     cl,8
        shl     bl,cl
;
; Draw the character, left half first, then right half in the
; succeeding byte, using the data rotation to position the character
; across the byte boundary and then using write mode 3 to combine the
; character data with the bit mask to allow the set/reset value (the
; character color) through only for the proper portion (where the
; font bits for the character are 1) of the character for each byte.
; Wherever the font bits for the character are 0, the background
; color is preserved.
; Does not check for case where character is byte-aligned and
; no rotation and only one write is required.
;
        mov     bp,FONT_CHARACTER_SIZE
        mov     dx,GC_INDEX
        pop     cx              ;get back screen width
        dec     cx
        dec     cx              ; -2 because do two bytes for each char
CharacterLoop:
;
; Set the bit mask for the left half of the character.
;
        mov     al,GC_BIT_MASK
        mov     ah,bh
        out     dx,ax
;
; Get the next character byte & write it to display memory.
; (Left half of character.)
;
        mov     al,[si]         ;get character byte
        mov     ah,es:[di]      ;load latches
        stosb                   ;write character byte
;
; Set the bit mask for the right half of the character.
;
        mov     al,GC_BIT_MASK
        mov     ah,bl
        out     dx,ax
;
; Get the character byte again & write it to display memory.
; (Right half of character.)
;
        lodsb                   ;get character byte
        mov     ah,es:[di]      ;load latches
        stosb                   ;write character byte
;
; Point to next line of character in display memory.
;
        add     di,cx
;
        dec     bp
        jnz     CharacterLoop
;
        pop     ds
        pop     bp
        pop     di
        pop     si
        pop     dx
        pop     cx
        pop     bx
        pop     ax
        ret
DrawChar        endp
;
; Set the pointer to the font to draw from to ES:BP.
;
SelectFont      proc    near
        mov     word ptr [FontPointer],bp       ;save pointer
        mov     word ptr [FontPointer+2],es
        ret
SelectFont      endp
;
cseg    ends
        end     start


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Graphics Programming Black Book © 2001 Michael Abrash